Near-Real-Time F2-Layer Critical Frequency Map

The following image is a recent high-resolution global map of F2-layer critical frequencies. This corresponds to the maximum radio frequency that can be reflected by the F2-region of the ionosphere at vertical incidence (that is, when the signal is transmitted straight up into the ionosphere). It is also a map showing the current location of the auroral ovals, the sunrise/sunset terminator and the regions of the world where the sun is 12 degrees below the horizon (which estimates the gray-line corridor where HF propagation is usually enhanced). This is one of a plethora of constructable maps that is produced by PROPLAB-PRO Version 2.0 (formerly known as SKYCOM PRO), a very powerful radio propagation software package for IBM or compatible computers, ideal for amateur or professional radio communicators. Instructions on how to use this map follow below.
(This map is updated every 5 minutes.)

Near-Real-Time Global foF2 Map

Click on PROPLAB-PRO Version 2.0 for additional map samples. 


Using this Map

This map can be used to determine the frequencies that will always be returned to the Earth. Transmitted frequencies higher than the indicated contours (which are given in MHz) may penetrate the ionosphere, resulting in lost power to space. Frequencies lower than the indicated contours will never penetrate the ionosphere. Lower foF2 values indicate a weaker ionosphere and correspond to regions with lower Maximum Usable Frequencies (MUFs). Higher foF2 values indicate a stronger ionosphere and correspond to regions with higher MUFs.

It is important to remember that these contours refer to the transmitted signals that are vertically incident on the ionosphere. All long-distance communications use signals that are obliquely incident on the ionosphere (that is, the radio signals are passing through the ionosphere at an angle instead of head-on).

The purpose of this map is to help illustrate regions of the ionosphere that are weak and strong. Critical F2 layer frequencies in excess of about 8 MHz correspond to regions of the ionosphere that are relatively strong and capable of reflecting high-frequency signals over longer distances. Critical frequencies below about 4 MHz are weaker and will result in greater signal loss to space, lower MUFs and greater signal instability. 


The map shows the radio auroral zones as green bands near the northern and southern poles. The area within the green bands is known as the auroral zone. Radio signals passing through these auroral zones will experience increased signal degradation in the form of fading, multipathing and absorption.

 

The radio auroral zones are typically displaced equatorward from the optical auroral zones (or the regions where visible auroral activity can be seen with the eye).

 The great-circle signal path from the Eastern United States to Tokyo is shown along with the distance of the path (in km) and the bearing from the U.S. to Tokyo (in degrees from north).

 If this signal path crosses through the green lines indicating the position and width of the radio auroral zones, propagation will be less stable and degraded compared to if the signal never crossed through the auroral zones. Using your mouse, PROPLAB-PRO will let you plot the great-circle paths and azimuths between any two points while this display is continually updated. 


The yellow Sun symbol near the equator indicates the location where the Sun is directly overhead. 
The regions of the world where the Sun is exactly rising or setting is known as the Grayline and is shown as the solid gray-colored line that is closest to the Sun symbol. 
The second solid gray-colored line defines the regions of the world where the Sun is exactly 12 degrees below the horizon. This line defines the end of evening twilight. Everything inside of this second line is experiencing night-time conditions. 
The area between the two lines (shaded a lighter shade than the night-time sector) is known as the grayline and has special significance to radio communicators. Signals which travel inside the grayline region often experience significant improvements in propagation because of the loss of ionization in the D-region as the Sun sets. However, because the higher F-regions of the ionosphere remain strongly ionized for longer periods of time, signals with higher frequencies are able to travel to greater distances with less attenuation when they are within the grayline. 
The great-circle path from the eastern U.S. to Japan is also shown with the accompanying distance (in kilometers) and bearing (clockwise from north). Notice how this path may occassionally pass into the influential auroral zones if geomagnetic activity increases or during the night-times. 
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